Publicaciones

Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 103(1-4), 2009


Artículos de investigación

Espectro polínico de mieles de castaño, Castanea sativa Miller (1768), (Fagaceae, Fagales) de la comarca geopolítica de Allariz-Maceda (Ourense, NO España)


Pollen spectrum of Castanea sativa Miller (1768) (Fagaceae, Fagales) honeys of the Allariz-Maceda geopolitic region (Ourense, Spain NW)

Mª Pilar de Sá-Otero, Sandra Armesto Baztán y Emilia Díaz Losada

Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 103 (1-4): 27-35, 2009

Resumen

Se ha realizado análisis polínico porcentual a 16 muestras de miel caracterizadas por poseer más del 45% de polen de Castanea sativa Miller (1768), unas de producción artesanal, en colmenares de la comarca geopolítica de Allariz-Maceda (Ourense), y otras adquiridas en lugares de venta, con la etiqueta de calidad “Mel de Galicia”. De ellas, han resultado ser cinco monoflorales de castaño (> 70% polen de C. sativa) y las once restantes milflores con alto contenido en polen de castaño (45-70% de dicho polen). Se ha obtenido que los espectros polínicos de las artesanales y comerciales son semejantes tanto en las monoflorales como en las milflores. Los tipos polínicos que alcanzan porcentajes superiores al 1% en todos los casos han sido C. sativa, Rubus sp. L., Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link (1822), Erica umbellata L. (1753), Erica australis L. (1770) o Erica arborea L. (1753), Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (1775) o Prunus spinosa L. (1753). La segunda unidad taxonómica del espectro es Rubus, en once de las muestras; el tipo polínico Cytisus scoparius, en tres y Erica, en dos. La presencia de tipo polínico Cytisus scoparius en el espectro polínico de las mieles de castaño gallegas puede ser la característica más destacable con respecto a las de la misma naturaleza producidas en otros lugares de España.

Palabras clave: Miel, Análisis polínico, Miel de castaño, Miel monofloral, España.

Abstract

Percentage pollinic analyses have been made of 16 samples of honey characterised by having more than 45% of Castanea sativa Miller pollen. Eight were home-produced in hives from the geopolitical area of Allariz-Maceda (Ourense) and eight, with the quality label of “Galician Honey”, were obtained in shops. The pollinic spectrum of each one is shown in Table 1 and they have been identified in the following way: The multiflorals from Allariz, MCA-1 those from Seoane and MCA-2 those from Magarelos; the monoflorals of Maceda, CM-1 Calvelo and CM- 2 Castro Escuadro; The multiflorals of Maceda, MCM-1 Barxela, MCM-2 Escuadro, MCM-3 A Lama, MCM-4 Vixueses; the commercial monoflorals, CC-1 the OR0001 with its central office in Barco de Valedoras, CC-2 the A 318168 with its central office in Arzúa (La Coruña), CC-3 the OR2301663 with central its office in Rubiá (Ourense); The commercial multiflorals, MCC-1 the OR2302153 with its central office in Pobra de Trives (Ourense), MCC-2 the OR0002 with its central office in Carballiño (Ourense), MCC-3 the A425064 with its central office in Baños de Molgas (Ourense), MCC-4 the A330039 with its central office in Arzúa (La Coruña) and MCC-5 the A7253151 with its central office in Nogueira de Ramuín (Ourense). These honeys were selected because they are either chestnut monoflorals or multiflorals with dominant Castanea sativa Miller (45-70% of pollen of this pollinic type). They were obtained from the 2002 and 2003 harvests. The methodology proposed by LOVEAUX et al. (1978) was used. The procedure used for percentage analysis was the methodology proposed by SAA et al. (1993). There were five chestnut monoflorals (> 70% Castanea sativa pollen) and eleven multiflorals with a high content of chestnut pollen (45-70% of this pollen). The latter have been denominated as multifloral honeys of predominant Castanea sativa, of which the MCA-1 is close to being monofloral (68% of chestnut pollen). It has been demonstrated that the pollinic spectrums of all of them are similar. The pollinic types that have reached percentages of higher than 1% have been: Castanea sativa, Rubus sp.L., type Cytisus scoparius (L.) Linn, Erica umbellata Loefl. Ex L., Erica australis L. or Erica arborea L., or Prunus spinosa L.,. The second taxonomic unit of the spectrum was Rubus in 10 of the samples, Cytisus scoparius in three and Erica in 3. Generally they are rich in pollen (Class IV or V), although there was one of Class I, another of Class II and a third sample of Class III. The number of pollinic types identified has been variable (9-22 per sample of honey), with an average of 15. These honeys, in which chestnut pollen is the principal component of their spectrum, are characterised by the fact that in 50% of the cases the Rubus sp. pollen reaches levels of higher than 16%. In 25% of the cases it was the pollen of t. Cytisus scoparius or of Erica that reached this percentage. Frequently, Erica (37.5 % of the cases), Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (18.7% of the cases) and Prunus (12,5% of the cases) were found to have values of over 3%. The presence of Campanula L., Trifolium L., Echium L. and Eucalyptus L’Hér. has always been less than 1% and they do not appear in all the samples. The analysis has permitted the establishment of similarity groups. Thus, a first group of two monofloral honeys and one multifloral honey with dominant Castanea sativa was established, which was characterised because its pollinic combination included Castanea sativa-Rubus-t. and Cytisus scoparius at percentages corresponding to the frequency classes of A and I. A second group formed by one monofloral and four Castanea sativa dominant multifloral honeys characterised by the presence of Erica in some of the A or I frequency classes and a third group, of three Castanea sativa dominant multifloral honeys, which presented a pollinic combination of Castanea sativa and Rubus sp., accompanied by t. Cytisus scoparius and Prunus cv. with percentages of the frequency classes of A and I. The other three honeys configured three groups of only one honey, each one of which had its own pollinic combination. This is summarised in the graph of Figure 2.

Keywords: Honey, Pollen analysis, Chestnut honey, Unifloral Honey, Spain.





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(c) Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Facultades de Biología y Geología. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. 28040-Madrid - e-mail: rsehno@bio.ucm.es