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RSEHN >> Publicaciones >> Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 1, 2014 >> Artículos de Investigación

Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 1, 2014


Artículos de Investigación

As exposições escolares como recursos educativos: um estudo de caso centrado nas variações da biodiversidade ao longo do tempo geológico


The school exhibitions as educational resources: a case study focused on changes in biodiversity over geological time

Marta Augusta da Silva Sousa, Maria Helena Henriques e Artur Abreu Sá

Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 1, 2014

Resumen

En este trabajo se describe como se ha concebido, desarrollado y evaluado una intervención educativa en el ámbito de la asignatura de Ciencias Naturales, realizada con alumnos, con edades comprendidas entre 12 y 15 años, del 7º año de escolaridad de la Escuela de Baltar, localizada en el distrito de Oporto (Portugal). La intervención fue llevada a cabo en dos contextos complementarios: formal (aula/laboratorio) y no formal (exposición temática, concebida a tal efecto), e implicó la realización de un trabajo práctico en pequeños grupos. Tuvo lugar durante el segundo periodo lectivo y se centró en las temáticas “Grandes etapas de la Historia de la Tierra” y “Deriva de los continentes y tectónica de placas”, incluidas en las Orientaciones Curriculares del Tercer Ciclo de la Educación Básica. Desde el punto de vista metodológico, el estudio diseñado es de naturaleza esencialmente cualitativo, de tipo estudio de un caso, en el que la recogida de datos se realizó mediante la observación directa, el diario del profesor, el cuestionario de diagnóstico, el análisis del contenido de las fichas de trabajo y el cuestionario de evaluación de la intervención. Además de esto, también se integraron datos de naturaleza cuantitativa, en forma de estadística descriptiva. Los resultados del estudio ponen de manifiesto que estudiar problemáticas actuales, concretamente las relacionadas con la pérdida de biodiversidad, utilizando estrategias y recursos que estimulen las interacciones sociales, motiva a los alumnos para el aprendizaje de las ciencias.

Resumo

O presente trabalho refere-se à conceção, implementação e avaliação de uma intervenção educativa, no âmbito da disciplina de Ciências Naturais, envolvendo uma turma de alunos do 7º ano de escolaridade, com idades compreendidas entre os 12 e os 15 anos, da Escola de Baltar, localizada no distrito do Porto (Portugal). A intervenção foi implementada em dois contextos complementares: formal (sala de aula/laboratório) e não formal (exposição temática, concebida para o efeito), e envolveu a realização de trabalho prático, em pequenos grupos. Decorreu durante o 2º período letivo, e centrou-se nas temáticas “Grandes etapas da História da Terra” e “Deriva dos continentes e tectónica de placas”, contempladas nas Orientações Curriculares para o 3º Ciclo do Ensino Básico. Do ponto de vista metodológico, o estudo delineado apresenta uma natureza essencialmente qualitativa, do tipo estudo de caso, em que a recolha de dados foi realizada através de observação direta, diário do professor, questionário de diagnóstico, análise ao conteúdo das fichas de trabalho e questionário de avaliação da intervenção. Além disso, foram também integrados dados de natureza quantitativa, sob a forma de estatística descritiva. Os resultados da análise desta intervenção mostram que estudar problemáticas atuais, nomeadamente as que se prendem com a perda da biodiversidade, utilizando estratégias e recursos que estimulem interações sociais, motiva os alunos para aprender ciências.

Palabras clave: Educación para el Desarrollo Sostenible, Biodiversidad, Exposición Temática, Trabajo cooperativo.
Palavras chave: Educação para Desenvolvimento Sustentável, Biodiversidade, Exposição Temática, Trabalho Cooperativo

Abstract

The promotion of learning processes through educational interventions that articulate all the different educational contexts, formal and non-formal, is nowadays more and more defended. The increasing research on this subject emphasizes the role of educational resources, such as science centers, museums, planetarium, thematic exhibitions and others, when properly used in the implementation of formal educational interventions, particularly in science education. This study refers to the conception, implementation and evaluation of an educational intervention related to Natural Sciences, involving students from the 7th grade (aged ranging from12 to 15) from the Basic School of Baltar, located in the Oporto district (Portugal), which was developed during the academic year of 2011/2012. This intervention was implemented within two complementary contexts: formal (classroom/lab) and non formal (a thematic exhibition, expressly organized for that purpose and open to the general public during a whole week), and involved practical work developed in small groups (2-3 students each), including different activities carried out before and after the exhibition and properly articulated with activities integrated in the curriculum. It was developed during the second school term, along thirteen sessions of forty-five minutes each, and focused on the curricular issues “Great stages of Earth’s History” and “Continental drift and plate tectonic”, both included in the curricular guidelines for the Basic Education of the Portuguese educational system. The research addressed the following question: How to turn the study of biodiversity and Earth’s dynamics, within the Natural Sciences, into significant and relevant learning for the students? From the methodological point of view, this study is essentially qualitative in nature, namely a study-case type. The data was collected from different sources: direct observation, the teacher’s diary, the students´ answers to a diagnostic questionnaire, the analysis of the student’s worksheets and the students´ answers to an assessment questionnaire. Quantitative data using descriptive statistic were also analyzed. Taking the obtained results into account, it is possible to conclude that the implementation of the intervention has contributed to promote the development of students’ knowledge and reasoning, as well as research attitudes and communication skills. In fact, most groups performed adequately the various tasks that were proposed in the intervention, and which involved the interpretation of texts, graphs, charts and maps. The cooperative work was highly valorized by the students, who consider it a suitable strategy for the promotion of learning, for sharing ideas and for peer cooperation. The results also demonstrate that interventions involving both cooperative work and practical work, using an exhibition as a resource, can contribute to promote significant and relevant learning on earth sciences. Moreover, they show that studying current issues, especially those related to biodiversity loss, increases students’ motivation towards science and stimulate interest and curiosity for learning more about science. The conception, planning and implementation of the thematic exhibition “Vanished Worlds”, focused on the interactions between biodiversity and Earth’s dynamics, represented, either for students or for visitors, an opportunity to improve the perception and awareness of their role in the preservation of biodiversity on Earth. It also helped to encourage them to adopt sustainable attitudes and behaviors in their daily lives, a key goal of ongoing international initiatives supported by the UNESCO, like the United Nations Decade for Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014) and the United Nations Decade for Biodiversity (2011-2020).

Keywords: Education for Sustainable Development, Biodiversity, Thematic Exhibition, Cooperative work





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(c) Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Facultades de Biología y Geología. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. 28040-Madrid - e-mail: rsehno@bio.ucm.es